Regulation & Release Of Stomach Acid

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To understand the regulation and release of stomach acid, we need to know some important type of cells present in stomach and duodenum [First part of small intestine], just after stomach.

Stomach
  • Parietal Cells : Releases Stomach Acid [HCL]
  • Chief Cells: Releases Pepsinogen
  • EnteroChromaffin Like Cells : Releases Histamine
  • G Cells : Releases Gastrin
Duodenum:
  • S cells : Releases Secretin
Regulation & Release of Stomach Acid

Increases Production Of Stomach Acid


Parietal cells are located in stomach and releases Gastric acid under direct influence of following factors:

  • Gastrin
  • Acetylcholine
  • Histamin

Gastrin is produced by G cells mostly located in stomach which gets signal to release Gastrin under following conditions:

  • Distension of Stomach : Most Important factor for the release of Gastrin
  • Amino Acids
  • Vagal Stimulation : Causes release of Acetylcholine and Gastrin Releasing Peptide [GRP]
Enterochromaffin like cells in stomach releases Histamine which has dual action:
It directly activated Parietal cells to release stomach acid
Potentiates the action of Acetylcholine and Gastrin on parietal cells.

stomach acid release
Stomach Acid Release & Regulation © washington.edu

 Decreases Production Of Stomach Acid


Somatostatin : Also known as growth hormone inhibiting hormone [GHIH] acts as a counterbalance for stomach acid release. It is produced in stomach, intestine and Delta cells of pancreas and inhibits acid secretion from parietal cells by three ways:
  • Inhibits the release of Histamine
  • Inhibits the release of Gastrin
  • Directly inhibits Parietal cells and decreases the production of stomach acids
S cells present in duodenum produces Secretin which are activated by presence of acid in small intestine and inhibits the production of Gastrin by G cells thus decreasing acid production by stomach. Secretin also causes release and production of pancreatic as well as biliary bircarbonate

Zollinger Ellison Syndrome is a condition where their is excessive secretion of Gastrin from G cells, which is discussed in detail in separate article